Replicability, Reproducibility, and Multiplicity in Drug Development

Frank Bretz, Willi Maurer, and Dong Xi Replication of research findings is fundamental to good scientific practice. The inability to replicate experimental results in subsequent experiments, either by independent investigators or by the original investigators themselves, could severely compromise the interpretability and credibility of the scientific claims. However, since John Ioannidis’s 2005 influential paper “Why […]